Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Although Henry's barons had sworn allegiance to his daughter as their Queen, her gender and her remarriage into the House of Anjou, an enemy of the Normans, allowed Henry's nephew, Stephen of Blois, to come to England and claim the throne with popular support. Perhaps the most significant aspect of Henry's legacy was the breaking down of the barrier between the Normans and the Anglo-Saxons, and his willingness to recognize the rights of his subjects. Another point in Henry’s favour was his recall the same year of the exiled Archbishop of Canterbury Anselm, who had fallen out of favour with William II. On Emperor Henry V’s death in 1125, Henry summoned the empress Matilda back to England and made his barons do homage to her as his heir. In 1113, he a… His absence, along with his poor reputation among the Norman nobles, allowed Prince Henry to seize the Royal Treasury at Winchester, Hampshire—where he buried his dead brother. Henry I was a skillful, intelligent monarch who achieved peace in England, relative stability in Normandy, and notable administrative advances on both sides of the Channel. English kings had appointed senior clergy, and the Papacy took offence at this, claiming that a layman could not have such authority over God’s servants. She had several other liaisons—including one with Stephen of Cardigan, Constable of Cardigan (1136)—and subsequently other illegitimate children. Eustace and his wife, Juliane, were outraged and threatened to rebel. Henry won his major battles but preferred diplomacy or bribery to the risks of the battlefield. The other side of this coin, however, was that Henry, by dint of his marriage, became far more acceptable to the Anglo-Saxon populace. Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Henry_I_of_England&oldid=1008312, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, Stephen (de facto), Empress Matilda (de jure), Robert received the Duchy of Normandy and became Duke Robert III, William Rufus received the Kingdom of England and became King William II, Henry Beauclerc received 5,000 pounds of silver, Euphamia (b. Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 04 December 2019 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Consequently, there was a reconciliation between Church and Crown after William II had been accused of paganism and stealing revenues from lands held by the Church. She was the wife of Anskill of Seacourt, at Wytham in Berkshire (now Oxfordshire). Subduing Normandy in 1106, he contented himself with keeping domestic peace, defending his Anglo-Norman state against rebellion and invasion, and making alliances with neighbouring princes. His mother, Queen Matilda, was descended from Alfred the Great (but not through the main West Saxon Royal line). First recorded meeting of the Exchequer, an accounting body created to monitor the English king's finances and debtors. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Related Content William Constable, born before 1105. His mother may have been a member of the Gai/Gay/Gayt family. Certainly, Henry had not been slow to secure the royal treasury and his election by the ruling council, all within 48 hours of his brother's death. It also marked a shift from the wide-ranging imperialism of earlier Norman leaders to consolidation and internal development. Between 1104 and 1106 Henry had been in the uncomfortable position of posing, in Normandy, as a champion of the church while fighting with his own archbishop of Canterbury. On his succession, he granted the baronage a Charter of Liberties, which formed a basis for subsequent challenges to rights of kings and anticipated the Magna Carta, which subjected the King to law. The Church was still proving a little troublesome, though. in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. Since Edith was also the niece of Edgar Atheling and the great-granddaughter of Edward the Confessor's paternal half-brother Edmund Ironside, the marriage united the Norman line with the old English line of Kings. Left without male heirs, Henry took the unprecedented step of making his barons swear to accept his daughter Empress Matilda, widow of Henry V, the Holy Roman Emperor, as his heir. The succession was precarious, however, because a number of wealthy Anglo-Norman barons supported Duke Robert, and Henry moved quickly to gain all the backing he could. In 1113, he attempted to reduce difficulties in Normandy by betrothing his eldest son, William Adelin, to the daughter of Fulk of Jerusalem (also known as Fulk V), Count of Anjou, then a serious enemy. On William's death in 1087, Henry's … In the generations before Henry’s accession, Norman dukes, magnates, and adventurers had conquered southern Italy, Sicily, Antioch, and England. Henry defeated Robert once and for all in a pitched battle at Tinchebrai in Normandy in September 1106 CE. Matilda would be crowned the Queen of England in Westminster Abbey on 11 May 1068 CE. This would have serious consequences for all of his successors as the balance of power, at least in terms of wealth, gradually shifted from the king to the aristocracy. Emma, born c. 1138; married Gui de Laval, Lord Laval. He was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and was educated in Latin and the liberal arts. Henry’s right to Normandy was challenged by William Clito, son of the captive Robert Curthose, and Henry was obliged to repel two major assaults against eastern Normandy by William Clito’s supporters: Louis VI of France, Count Fulk of Anjou, and the restless Norman barons who detested Henry’s ubiquitous officials and high taxes. Henry I of England (c. 1068 C.E. When, on August 2, 1100, William II was killed by an arrow in yet another hunting accident in the New Forest, Duke Robert had not yet returned from the First Crusade. She married Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke, in 1130. William II died unexpectedly on 2 August 1100 CE in the New Forest, as the result of a hunting accident when the nobleman William Tirel (sometimes spelt Tyrrell) fired a fateful arrow which bounced off the back of a fleeing stag and landed right in the centre of William’s chest. ". But Henry, supported by a number of his barons, most of the Anglo-Saxons, and St. Anselm, worked out an amicable settlement with the invaders. After Henry had defeated his brother's Norman army at Tinchebray he imprisoned Curthose, initially in the Tower of London, subsequently at Devizes Castle and later at Cardiff. She tried to shoot her father with a crossbow after King Henry allowed her two young daughters to be blinded. Robert had again challenged his father during the siege of Mantes in 1087 CE. Then the two brothers had joined sides to defeat Henry at Mont-Saint-Michel, confiscating his lands in the Cotentin (Cherbourg) peninsula for themselves. At the time, the incident was regarded as an accident and Tirel was not punished for his part in the tragedy. Lady Sybilla Corbet of Alcester was born in 1077, in Alcester in Warwickshire. Often, probably incorrectly, said to have been a son of Sybil Corbet. The site where most of the fighting took place is the village playing field today. Under Henry, the Anglo-Norman state his father had created was reunited. His succession was confirmed while his brother Robert was away on the First Crusade and the beginning of his reign was occupied by wars with Robert for control of England and Normandy. The White Ship’s pilot was drunk and the vessel hit a rock and sank near Barfleur. When William I died in 1087 CE, he was succeeded … Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Henry_I_of_England/. He used itinerant officials to curb abuses of power at the local and regional level, garnering the praise of the people. Henry's reign is noted for its political opportunism. This combat was totally unexpected and unprepared. The struggle between the former Empress and Stephen resulted in a long civil war known as the Anarchy. The rest of Henry's reign was filled with judicial and financial reforms. All onboard died except a Norman butcher. Henry tried to play his brothers off against each other, but eventually, wary of his devious maneuvering, they acted together and signed an Accession Treaty. Author of. Robert was then imprisoned for the remaining 28 years of his life, and Henry became both king of England and Duke of Normandy. Following papal bans against lay lords investing churchmen with their lands and against churchmen rendering homage to laymen, Anselm refused to consecrate bishops whom Henry had invested and declined to do homage to Henry himself. He was buried in Reading Abbey, which he had funded the building of. When Henry I died at Lyons-la-Forêt in eastern Normandy, his favourite nephew, Stephen of Blois, disregarding Matilda’s right of succession, seized the English throne. It was a compromise. Updates? Sinking of the White Shipby British Library (Public Domain). St. Anselm had returned from exile in 1100 dedicated to reforms of Pope Paschal II, which were designed to make the church independent of secular sovereigns. Henry died on 1 December 1135 CE at Saint Denis-le-Fermont in Rouen, Normandy. Cartwright, M. (2019, December 04). Adeliza FitzEdith. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. On the morning of the September 28, 1106, exactly 40 years after William had landed in England, the decisive battle between his two sons, Robert Curthose and Henry Beauclerc, took place in the small village of Tinchebray. Even today, the finance minister of the UK government is called the ‘Chancellor of the Exchequer.’ More significant than the catchy title, this was a major step in creating some form of bureaucratic government. Richard of Lincoln (c. 1094-November 25, 1120); perished in the wreck of the White Ship. Matilda du Perche, married Count Rotrou II of Perche, perished in the wreck of the White Ship. He had three children by Matilda (Edith), who died in 1118: Disaster struck when William, his only legitimate son, perished in the wreck of the White Ship on November 25, 1120, off the coast of Normandy. Matilda FitzRoy, abbess of Montvilliers, also known as Montpiller, Thompson, Kathleen. The rest of Henry’s reign was peaceful, even if it was likely more a regime of repression than harmony, given the events following Henry’s death. Henry was born in September 1068 CE in Selby, Yorkshire, his father being William, Duke of Normandy, otherwise known as William the Conqueror or William I of England following his invasion of that country in 1066 CE. [Uncertain, born 2 years after Henry died.]. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Although a Crusading hero, Robert was a self-indulgent, vacillating ruler who allowed Normandy to slip into chaos. His two legitimate sons, William (the eldest, b. c. 1103 CE) and Richard were both tragically drowned in the English Channel in 1120 CE when onboard the ill-fated White Ship. Some sources suggest that there was another daughter by this relationship, Gundred, but it appears that she was thought as such because she was a sister of Reginald de Dunstanville but it appears that that was another person of that name who was not related to this family. In England, a distinction was made in the King's chancery between the secular and ecclesiastical powers of the prelates. The Chronicler William of Malmesbury asserts that Henry once remarked that an illiterate King was a crowned ass. By 1120, however, the barons had submitted, Henry’s son had married into the Angevin house, and Louis VI—defeated in battle—had concluded a definitive peace. In Henry’s reign, 85% of royal income came from land; 150 years later it would be only 40%, taxes would have to supply the remainder. Royal justices began making systematic tours of the English shires, but, although his administrative policies were highly efficient, they were not infrequently regarded as oppressive. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. He took great delight in his grandchildren, but soon quarreled with his daughter and son-in-law and these disputes led him to tarry in Normandy far longer than he originally planned.

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