However, in some years, they have been identified as far west as the Panhandle of Nebraska and as far east as Maine. Several nymphal stages occur in the generation. At a minimum, hay In potato, some materials registered for Colorado potato beetle adults will also control leafhopper, including neonicotinoids. as "hopper burn." In green Some varieties of leafhopper lay their eggs on the underside of leaves as well. Watch for stippled or bleached leaves. Weeds that support leafhoppers include smartweed, pigweed, shepardspurse, and carpetweed. and move sideways across the leaves when disturbed. Adults live 30-40 days but may live as much as 90 days. potato leafhoppers, a 15-inch sweep net is required. It usually arrives in Connecticut in June. Check potato fields very closely once haying starts. years. Using row cover is recommended on young eggplant, as it  protects from flea beetles, Colorado potato beetle and potato leafhopper. sweep net, fields should be sampled beginning in mid-May. 1 Maxim MZ treatments applied at 8 oz/cwt, Tops MZ at 12 oz/cwt, Admire at 1.3 fluid oz/1000 linear feet, and Platinum at 0.55 fluid oz/1000 linear feet. on scouting, cultural control, and the use of insecticides. In potato, leaf veins turn yellow, leaves curl, then leaf margins turn brown and brittle, followed by death of entire leaves. Potato leafhoppers can be found in fields until The pale green to yellow nymphs which are smaller than the adults, are wingless, flightless and tend to move sideways very quickly when disturbed. Nymphs When Spraying late in the day or in the evening may provide better control than spraying early in the morning. Premature death of the plant may occur in severe infestations. Its short life cycle permits up to 10 generations per year. of potato leafhoppers per sweep. Chemical Management — Many insecticides will kill leafhoppers. It overwinters on legumes in the Gulf states and disperses to northern states on wind currents annually. The toxin is not systemic, so damage is proportional to insect numbers. They fly north in the spring on the winds in the upper atmospheric levels. The browning is due to cellular death or necrosis. At this point, traveling across the field will cause an equal or greater stand loss than early harvesting. Treat potato if more than 15 nymphs are found per 50 compound leaves. the first killing frost in the fall. Adults have whitish or Potato leafhoppers are small (1/8 inch long), wedge-shaped insects. They fly north in the spring on the winds in the upper atmospheric levels. theprotein and vitamin A content of alfalfa. Leafhopper damage may take weeks before symptoms begin to show and it is typically older leaves that display the “hopperburn” symptomology. Nymph populations should be monitored by visual examination of the undersides of 25 leaves per sample site. Though its host range extends to over 100 plants leafhoppers in soybeans when leafhoppers are numerous and the edges of Both adults and nymphs feed by inserting their mouth parts into the plant’s vascular tissue and extracting sap. One of the most common and destructive insects affecting alfalfa. Spray early in the day when insects are sluggish. damagehas already occurred if leafhopper injury is visible. remain in the field, but are unable to survive without food. Good coverage is important. This species of The residual period is short. the plant. however, summer storms may also bring in potato leafhoppers on wind allow them to remove nutrients from host plants. currents. Sweeping wet foliage produces results Movement to soybean fields by the potato leafhopper generally occurs Damage caused by leafhoppers includes stunted plants, brown leaves and reduced plant vigor. Severe leafhopper injury can reduce both Adults and nymphs feed by inserting a needle-like beak into the plant and feeding on phloem or mesophyll tissue. that are not reliable estimates of the damage potential within a field. The body of the insect is widest at its head and narrowest at its wing tips. Leafhopper infestations are more likely to occur in crops planted adjacent to alfalfa fields, especially after alfalfa has been harvested and the insects are forced out of the field. sure that representative portions of the field are sampled. economic levelsbefore symptoms occur. asignificant loss in the nutritional value of hay for livestock. infestations are above economic thresholds and early harvest is not an Avoid sweeping field borders or Parasitoids and general predators (ants, spiders, ladybugs, lacewings) actively reduce numbers. including alfalfa, soybean, beans, apples, potatoes, and grapes, the The hind Sweep nets can be used to detect adults – treat if more than 1 adult is found per sweep. Other leafhoppers that may be present should be sampled once each week following the first cutting of hay. Resistance comes from small hairs on the stem that repel the leafhopper. The tiny nymphs emerge from these eggs in a 7 to 10 days, they reach the adult stage about two weeks later. Immatures pass Potato leafhopper is primarily a pest of potatoes and snap or dry beans, but also can affect eggplant and other vegetables, raspberries, apple and other fruits as well as field crops including alfalfa, cowpea, soybean and red clover. Many foliar insecticides also provide excellent control for PLH. , … leafhoppers. head. Leafhoppers have piercing-sucking mouth parts and jump, fly or run sideways at a rapid pace when disturbed. Fax: (608) 262-3322 Research has proven that economic recommended. Large PLH populations migrate from alfalfa fields after harvest in June and early July causing their numbers to seemingly “explode” overnight. when a nearby alfalfa field is cut. PLH-resistant alfalfa varieties can simplify and improve management. It is easy to overlook them in the crop, as they are small and well hidden. vascular tissues and the simultaneous injection of toxic substances into Identification (and life cycle/seasonal history) The potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), occasionally damages alfalfa in our area. It is difficult to count adults since they fly quickly when foliage is shaken or disturbed. Harvesting potentially reduces egg, nymph and adult populations. The adult PLH is a highly mobile, small (1/8-inch), bright green, wedge-shaped insect. spraying during the bloom stage. It is easy to overlook them in the crop, as they are small and well hidden. and are frequently the most severely damaged portion of a stand. Nymphs and adults are typically found on leaf undersides, inserting mouthparts, sucking out sap, and then secreting a toxin back into the leaf. The nymphal stages closely resemble the adult except that they are smaller, wingless, and more yellow in color. Initial symptom is V-shaped yellowing at leaf tips. Healthy, vigorously growing plants withstand damage more effectively than stressed plants. Green beans are very susceptible, especially when they are infested prior to flowering. Resources from UMass Extension and the Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment: Management in orchards and vegetable crops relies on the use of REC, Lower Eastern Shore Injured foliage has the characteristic V-shaped "hopper burn," severe In potato, yield loss occurs even before the development of obvious symptoms. Potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae) damages crops through direct feeding on the sap. Foliar treatments include Actara, Asana, Ambush/Pounce, Baythroid, Dimethoate (formerly Cygon, also used for false chinch bug), Furadan (also used for sand(hill) chafer), Monitor (also used against aphids), Provado, and Thiodan. leafhopper is pale green with a rowof six white spots located behind the Adults live 30-40 days but may live as much as 90 days. Both adults and nymphs are very ac… Life Cycle/Habits. Resources include: Vegetable Insect Management by Rick Foster and Brian. pest occur. This site is maintained by Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment in the College of Natural Sciences. Injury develops most rapidly during hot, dry weather. Keep weeds down, especially perennial weeds that harbor leafhopper eggs. Monitor populations of adult leafhoppers beginning in mid-May. The potato leafhopper feeds on more than 100 cultivated and wild plants including; apples, beans, potatoes, eggplant, rhubarb, celery, dahlia, peanuts, alfalfa, clovers, and soybean. The adult potato leafhopper is a tiny, yellowish-green, wedge-shaped insect, about 1/8 inch (3 mm) long. Potato leafhoppers will lay eggs on potatoes. In apples, potato leafhoppers may be a threat to Severe leaf damage and premature plant death is common in potato, whereas leaf discoloration and curling are more characteristic on bean. each year in Illinois. margins generally curl downward. Tiny nymphs emerge from these eggs in 7 to 10 days and molt 5 times over a period of about 2 weeks before turning into adults. The chief concern for alfalfa producers is a type of injuryreferred to They tend to move sidewise, crab-like, on the leaf surface. Potato leafhoppers do not survive the winter in Kentucky. Thoroughly wet leaf undersides. Potato leafhopper resistance or tolerance in alfalfa hybrids is based role in potato leafhopper control. Selecting a Resistant vs. Non-resistant Variety. If you see one adult per plant fly upwhen you shake the foliage, a damaging infestation level is present. potato leafhopper causes the most significant amount of injury to cause stunting of plants and cupping of leaves. vigilantscouting. Adults migrate to the northern and eastern US in the spring, carried by prevailing weather systems. Plant injury and yield loss can be significant. to three small white eggs per day into the stems and larger leaf veins Eggs hatch in ten days forming the first of several nymphal stages. maymigrate to soybean fields. A wide range of plants serve as hosts for the potato leafhopper (PLH), many are economically important crops. preventing them from reaching the leaf with their mouthparts. The body is widest at the head and tapers toward the wing tips. If scouting and spraying does not normally control potato leafhopper, a PLH-resistant variety is a good choice. This slight injury is soon followed by a gradual browning starting at the leaflet’s tip and margin (hopperburn), and extending basipetally until the leaflet is all dead and desiccated. symptoms appear, which is much later than when economic levels of the Potato leafhoppers cannot survive the winter in Illinois. translucent wings, while the smaller nymphs or immatures are wingless.


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