David Hume, in Avian Immunology (Second Edition), 2014. Genetic selection has resulted in two different types of commercial poultry, meat and egg-laying birds. This “stamping out” of infected flocks can involve the killing of very large numbers of birds, and includes not only birds infected with the disease, but also healthy poultry in the surrounding area (Galvin et al., 2005). From a personnel standpoint, this will include collection of carcass rinsate samples from commercial poultry processing sites and plating for microbial counts as well as sequencing the rinsates and working in conjunction with microbiological laboratory personnel to collect sequence data and perform analysis using bioinformatics programs to identify individual taxonomic groups and assess diversity of identified populations and establish the best indicators for process control. [84], Poultry housing has been shown to have adverse effects on the respiratory health of workers, ranging from a cough to chronic bronchitis. Poultry farming means ‘raising various types of domestic birds commercially for the purpose of meat, eggs and feather production’. [12], Suitable land requires adequate drainage to minimise worms and coccidial oocysts, suitable protection from prevailing winds, good ventilation, access and protection from predators. [72] noted that the high COD concentrations (7230 mg l−1) warranted anaerobic treatment and conducted a series of anaerobic batch tests on a beef slaughterhouse wastewater that yielded COD removals of 80%. Hydrolyzed feathers can be used to replace other expensive protein based ingredients, such as fish meal and blood meal. Although traditional methods such as vaccines have been effective to control disease, there is still various diseases that threaten\ the poultry industry. [citation needed] The Soil Association standards[20] used to certify organic flocks in the UK, indicate a maximum outdoors stocking density of 1,000 birds per hectare and a maximum of 2,000 hens in each poultry house. The largest producers were the United States (20%), China (16.6%), Brazil (15.1%) and the European Union (11.3%). The in ovo vaccination procedure is relatively new and at the present time it is used primarily to vaccinate broiler chickens against MDV. The hens usually lay eggs either on the floor of the coop or in baskets if provided by the farmer. There are a variety of methods of disposal, the most common being burial, composting, incineration, and rendering. Dry management particularly refers to dry litter such as sawdust that is removed as needed. Poultry meat color depends on myoglobin (Mb) concentration and chemical state, while it is affected by numerous factors such as bird age, gender, genetic background, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, preslaughter conditions, and processing variables (Totosaus et al., 2007).


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